Browsing through, I notice that *The Logic Book* by Bergmann, Moor and Nelson is $51 on Amazon.com. Not exactly cheap for a student.

Oh hold on, that is the price to *rent* the book for *one* semester. To buy it, even at Amazon’s discounted price, is $128. Ye gods. That’s simply outrageous, isn’t it?

What about the competition? Hurley and Watson’s *Concise Introduction to Logic *is $32 to rent for a semester, and $86 to buy (discounted from a ludicrous list price of $182). Copi’s *Introduction to Logic* apparently marches on to a 15th edition which you can rent for a price-gouging $79 (yes, you read that right: seventy nine dollars to rent the book for one semester): which makes buying it seem quite the bargain at $104 (reduced from an absurd $195).

I could go on. And it isn’t as if those books are (by my lights) particularly good, even if much used and recommended. Nick Smith’s *Logic: The Laws of Truth* by contrast is excellent; but although it has been out over eight years, it has never been paperbacked by Princeton, and has a list price of $62 ($56 on Amazon). Much better value, but still quite punchy for a student budget.

Which prompts the question: what books are there at this level — intro logic books aimed at philosophy students — which are *free *(officially free to download), and/or available for *at-cost print on demand* (for a student who prefers to work from a traditional book).

Here’s what I currently know about. We should probably set aside Neil Tennant’s *Natural Logic *(here’s a scanned copy from the author’s website), as this is tough going for beginners. So, in chronological order, we have:

- Paul Teller,
*A Modern Formal Logic Primer *(originally Prentice Hall, 1989). Now available as scanned PDFs, with exercise solutions too, from this webpage for the book. Old but has some good features, and is very clearly written. - Craig DeLancey,
*A Concise Introduction to Logic* (SUNY Open Textbooks, 2017). Webpage for this book. Not to my taste, in either the order of presentation of material or the style of natural deduction system. - P. D. Magnus, Tim Button and others,
*forallx *(The Open Logic Project, frequently updated). Webpage for 2020 Calgary version. Available also from Amazon print on demand. Excellent. - Peter Smith,
*An Introduction to Formal Logic* (2nd edition, originally CUP, 2020) Webpage here. Available also from Amazon print on demand. Doesn’t cover as much and more expansive than *forallx,* so perhaps more accessible for self-study.

But there must surely be other options. I haven’t done a significant amount of homework on this, so do let me know what’s out there, and I will put together a web-page resource with links and more comments.